New Antimicrobial

Bacterial Infections & Structured Silver

Examples of Bacteria

New Silver Technology

“Bacteria” is a broad term for a domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. There are more known species of bacteria than any other domain of organisms on Earth, and exist in nearly every habitat, from radioactive to frigid environments.

While generally measuring between 0.5 and 5.0 micrometers, bacteria exist in many different shapes and sizes, such as rods, spheres, and spirals. This is called the “morphology” of the bacteria. Most species are either rod shaped, called bacilli, or spherical, called cocci.

While bacteria provide many important functions that help regulate natural processes, there are also many known bacteria that cause severe human infection. Some of these include types of pneumonia, leprosy, some sexually transmitted diseases, and even the bubonic plague.

The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a sub discipline of microbiology. Because these organisms are responsible for so many processes in our own bodies, as well as nature as a whole, understanding how they function is of incredible significance.

There are many different species of bacteria. Here are overviews of many commonly discussed varieties.

Bacillus Anthracis

Bacillus anthracis is responsible for the Anthrax acute disease. The bacteria can form dormant endospores, which can survive for incredibly long periods of time. Anthrax can be produced in vitro in the spore state, meaning it can be produced en masse in a laboratory. Because of the hardy nature of the endospores, the disease can be used as biological weapon.

Pulmonary anthrax generally manifests first as cold or flu-like symptoms, followed by sudden respiratory collapse. Anthrax taken into the gastrointestinal tract, usually by eating infected meat, is characterized by difficulty digesting and processing food, bloody vomit, severe diarrhea, and loss of appetite. Mortality rates for pulmonary anthrax are higher than gastrointestinal anthrax, with 92% for the former, and 25% to 50% for the latter. The third form is cutaneous anthrax, caused when the spores of the bacilus anthracis bacteria bypass the outer layer of skin, generally through cuts. This form of anthrax is far less fatal, with an untreated mortality rate of 20%.

Bordetella Pertussis

Bordetella pertussis is the cause of pertussis, commonly called whooping cough. Humans are the only known carriers of Bordatella pertussis. Pertussis is an infection of the respiratory system. A vaccine was developed in the twentieth century, and the disease does not exist in the United States today. It still infects people in other country, and still kills thousands worldwide.

The bacteria begins in the lungs, and produces a toxin that acts as a paralyzer, stopping the cilia from beating and clearing the debris and mucus from the lungs. To respond to this, the body stimulates coughing, which helps to clear some of the debris as well as the bacteria, spreading it to others.

Borrelia Burgdorferi

Borrelia burgdorferi is a species of bacteria that is known to cause Lyme disease. Unfortunately, Lyme disease is more rampant than most authorities suspect, due to difficulties in testing and diagnosis.

Lyme disease can include joint pain, fatigue, achy muscles, and flu-like symptoms. A bulls-eye rash is commonly seen when first bitten by an infected tick, but it may be overlooked if does not appear on a common place on the body.

Neurological problems, arthritis, and cognitive issues can be seen in some patients who go untreated with Lyme disease. Heart and brain issues may also occur, in those who have been infected for many years.

Early treatment is key when dealing with this infection. If treated early enough, permanent symptoms can be avoided.

Campylobacter Jejuni

This organism is a gram negative bacteria that is classified as a microaerophile. This means that the bacteria do best in environments without oxygen, but can also survive in the presence of small amounts of oxygen. This organism is usually carried by animals, and is often found in animal feces.

When infected with Campylobacter, people experience inflammation of the digestive system, usually manifested by diarrhea, abdominal pain, and sometimes a slight fever. The disease will range from a day to a week.

In some rare cases, Campylobacter jejuni has been shown to cause Giullain-Barre syndrome, a disease that affects the peripheral nervous system. The signs are a weakness beginning in the extremities and working towards the trunk of the body. This disorder can be treated and the majority of people who contract it will recover completely.

Chlamydia Pneumoniae

Chlamydia pneumoniae is known for causing pneumonia. If a person coughs on something, the disease can stay there and infect multiple people. The bacteria can survive by transforming into a new form resistant to the bacteria and will replicate in the white blood cell.

When there are enough of these bacteria in the lungs, they will begin to interfere with the lung’s normal processes and cause pneumonia.

Although Chlamydia pneumonia usually causes pneumonia, it can cause other diseases as well. The bacteria can spread through the body and cause meningitis, arthritis, and myocarditis. These bacteria, by interfering with normal body functions, serve as an irritant and cause inflammation of the brain, joints, and heart. In some cases, especially in places without adequate medical care, Chlamydia pneumonia can cause death.

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram negative organism associated with causing the disease Chlamydia.

An infection from this organism is usually spread through sexual intercourse. It can also be passed from a mother to her child during childbirth. In a newborn child, the disease will infect the eyes and potentially cause blindness. Unlike other diseases, many people do not show symptoms of the disease and are unaware of being carriers. Although the disease can be treated, if not diagnosed, Chlamydia can cause serious reproductive problems over time.

In women, Chlamydia can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which is an infection of the reproductive organisms. If not treated immediately, inflammation will lead to scarring. This scarring can cause infertility.

In men, chlamydia is much more likely to cause symptoms, although not in all cases. Men also experience a painful discharge. If the disease is not treated promptly, the Chlamydia trachomatis can spread to the testicles and cause epididymitis. It is also possible to cause sterility if not treated.

Chlamydophila Psittaci

Chlamydophila psittaci is a zoonosis, meaning that it can be transmitted from an animal host to a human host, spread through respiratory droplets where it starts by infecting the lungs of humans.

In humans, Chlamydophila psittaci infections start by causing flu-like symptoms. Over time, the disease can cause pneumonia.

In an bird host, the bacteria will form elementary bodies, which are not active and do not cause illness, but are extremely resistant to being killed and can survive in harsh conditions. The elementary bodies are spread from the bird to the lungs of a human.

Once inside the lungs, the protective cells of the body recognize the elementary bodies as pathogens and try to kill the bacteria by engulfing them. The elementary body transforms into a reticulate body and starts to multiply inside the cell. After the cells have multiplied, they transform back into elementary bodies and break down the walls of the host cell, killing the cell and releasing the elementary bodies to infect more cells in the lungs.

The life cycle of Chlamydophila psittaci is divided into two parts. The elementary bodies are able to infect new hosts, but are not able to multiply. The reticulate bodies are able to replicate themselves but are incapable of infecting new hosts. This bacteria is a unique species.

Clostridium Botulinum

Clostridium botulinum is a gram positive bacteria that produces a number of potent neurotoxins and can cause botulism.

While somewhat rare nowadays, Clostridium botulinum contamination can occur in improperly preserved canned goods, or goods that are not canned in a timely fashion or under appropriate pressure. Seven chemically different toxins have been identified; most strains produce only one of these, however strains exist that can produce multiple. Not all toxin varieties are disease causing in humans.

The disease botulism, while rare, is a very serious paralytic condition. In all cases, paralysis usually begins in the face, and can spread to other parts of the body. Eventually weakness will spread to the limbs, followed by difficulty breathing and finally respiratory failure.

Clostridium Difficile

Clostridium difficile is an infectious agent that causes profound diarrhea. It is highly infectious, and people who are afflicted are isolated, if in a hospital setting, or given strict hygiene and hand washing instructions if they remain out in the community. This particular infection is particularly dangerous to the elderly, very young, or anyone with compromised health due to the high risk of dehydration from the excessive diarrhea.

In order to get clostridium difficile you need to ingest its spores. These infectious spores are found in the feces of an infected individual and are transferred from the feces onto objects from direct contact with infected feces, or from contaminated hands that were not properly washed that spread the spores onto other objects.

Clostridium difficile is a highly infectious and potentially deadly disease that can usually be prevented through proper hand washing and hygiene.

Clostridium Perfringens

Clostridium perfringens is a naturally present bacteria in decaying and rotten materials. Some individuals become extremely ill from the bacteria, while others remain healthy and unharmed.

Avoiding these bacteria can prove difficult. Even with extreme heat, the harmful clostridium perfringens can poison humans.

It is not uncommon for humans to consume small amounts of the bacteria and remain healthy. It is not until the bacteria are consumed in large amounts that a human would be exposed to extremely hazardous health risks.

Clostridium Tetani

Clostridium tetani is a Gram-positive bacteria that produces a powerful toxin called tetanospasmin and causes the disease tetanus. Tetanus was recognized throughout history as an illness resulting from open wounds that caused severe muscle spasms and often resulted in death for those who contracted it.

A host organism generally becomes infected by Clostridium tetani when the bacteria enters through an open wound. Rapid replication and toxin release then begins; the toxins quickly spread through the circulatory system and eventually bind to the ends of nerve cells. The toxins bind to the central nervous system in the brain and spine and, without treatment, will cause involuntary spasms and muscle contractions in the host. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, and tachycardia, or irregular heartbeat may occur in the host organism.

Corynebacterium Diphtheria

Corynebacterium diphtheria is a human pathogen and the bacteria responsible for the illness diphtheria, an upper respiratory infection with symptoms usually including sore throat, fever, and swollen tonsils and pharynx.

Corynebacterium diphtheria is a gram positive bacteria, and pleomorphic, meaning it retains no consistent cell organization along a broad scale.

Luckily, this strain of bacteria is rather sensitive to many antibiotics.

Enterobacter Aerogenes

Enterobacter aerogenes is most commonly acquired in a hospital or hospital-type atmosphere. It usually causes opportunistic infections, meaning that it will typically cause disease only in a host that has a compromised immune system.

Enterobacter aerogenes are Gram-negative and anaerobic. They are seen throughout nature, including fresh water, sewage plants, and vegetables.

Surgical procedures, intravenous catheter insertions, and some antibiotic treatments can result in infection with Enterobacter aerogenes. The gastrointestinal tract is usually where it is found in a human, and it is known to cause respiratory, urinary tract infections, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis. They also cause burn, wound, and bloodstream infections, and have been shown to cause meningitis and central nervous system infections.

Enterococcus Faecalis

Enterococcus faecalis is a gram positive bacterium that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of most mammals, including humans, and is responsible for very serious, sometimes life-threatening infections.

Enterococcus faecalis can become highly resistant to most commonly administered antibiotics, so a very common concern is how to get rid of it. Enterococcus faecalis can cause bacteremia, meningitis, and urinary tract infections.

Bacteremia is a general term for a condition in which bacteria is present in the blood stream. Sepsis or septic shock can occur as a result of this condition, both of which can be fatal.

Meningitis causes the membranes around the brain and spinal cord to become inflamed and swell. Because of the infections proximity to the brain, meningitis can quickly become life-threatening.

Urinary tract infections generally cause a frequent need to urinate, pain, and cloudy urine.

Escherichia Coli

Escherichia coli, or E. coli, is a gram-negative bacteria that can cause infections resulting in diarrhea and urinary tract infections, among other diseases. In severe cases, it can cause bacterial meningitis and pneumonia.

E. coli is spread primarily by the fecal-oral route. People with poor hygiene habits can transmit the disease directly to another person, or by first touching an object and depositing the bacteria there.

Francisella Tularensis

Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacteria that causes tularemia, or rabbit fever. Infections are most commonly caused through skin contact with infected animals or insects, although some forms of the bacteria are airborne as well.

The symptoms of rabbit fever become visible three to five days after contact, the most common being lesions on the skin. Due to the infection commonly being contracted through insect bites, it can be difficult to determine whether the lesion is due to the infection, or the insect bite. Hunters are more prone to an airborne infection than other individuals, due to the increased amount of time they spend around infected insects and can inhale infected particle while skinning infected animals.

Infection can also spread through infected water sources or undercooked meat. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, has labeled Francisella tularensis as a Class A agent for biological warfare, because it’s easily aerosolized, highly infectious, and highly incapacitating. No vaccine is widely available to the public.

Haemophilus Influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram negative bacteria responsible for a number of diseases, including types of pneumonia and meningitis. It can also be the cause of ear infections, sinusitis, eye infections, and pneumonia in children.
Treatment can be difficult, especially in cases of misdiagnosis.

Some strains of Haemophilus influenzae have been able to become penicillin resistant, therefore requiring alternate antibiotics to combat. Since the 1990s, a vaccine has been available. According to some sources, over 90% of individuals in developed countries have received the vaccination for Haemophilus influenzae.

Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium found in the stomach and is a major cause of stomach and other gastroesophageal issues including gastric ulcers, chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcers, and even stomach cancer. Ten to twenty percent of people with Helicobacter pylori will develop acute stomach distress, including stomachaches or nausea.

Repeated inflammation can cause chronic gastritis, which involves vomiting, belching, bloating, pressure, and stomachaches on a regular or frequent basis. Helicobacter pylori infections can be treated easily with antibiotics and other medical treatments, luckily, and researchers are investigating the possibility of developing a vaccine to prevent the proliferation of H. pylori in the stomach.

Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the bacteria directly responsible for Klebsiella pneumonia, and more recently, a greater number of infections contracted within hospitals. Klebsiella pneumoniae is often called an opportunistic pathogen, which people simply want to eliminate. Like other forms of pneumonia, it causes inflammation and fluid release in the lungs. Sufferers tend to cough up bloody sputum and have a high fever.

This bacterium can also cause less common infections, including rhinoscleroma and ozena. Rhinoscleroma is an infection that, while not fatal on its own, can lead to sepsis which can be fatal if not treated. Ozena, or atrophic rhinitis, is a similar condition affecting mucous membranes in the nose. Both cause serious swelling of the nose, and scarring is usually irreversible.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is antibiotic resistant; many resistant strains have been documented in hospitals, usually transported via contaminated surgical instruments. One strain, CRKP, is resistant to nearly all antimicrobials. The complete genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae has been mapped at the Genome Sequencing Center at Washington University, and has been found to be similar to that of E. coli.

Legionella Pneuophila

Legionella pneuophila is a gram-negative bacteria that can be spread to a human host through drinking water. The bacteria causes legionnaire’s disease, which is characterized by a high fever and pneumonia. The chances of being infected with Legionella pneuophila are increased during the summer months, and these cases usually occur as isolated cases, not spread from host to host.
Diagnosis is fairly simple and antibiotics have proven effective against the microorganism.

Leptospira Interrogans

Leptospira interrogans is a Gram-negative bacteria that infects through contact with water that has been contaminated with infected urine. It is commonly passed from household pets that have been drinking from infected puddles to their owners, particularly in areas with a large population of rats. Leptospira interrogans can live up to three months in this environment, greatly increasing the chance of infection.

Leptospirosis has two major phases: a flu-like stage, and a more severe second stage. There is a brief period between the two phases that is asymptomatic. In the first phase, symptoms include chills, headaches, and fever. With the second stage comes meningitis, renal failure, and liver damage. Most deaths have been attributed to people travelling to exoting locales and not taking proper precaution against infection.

Listeria Monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes is a gram positive bacteria that causes listeriosis. Any infection by Listeria monocytogenes is serious and potentially deadly. It causes gastric discomfort if confined to the digestive system, but can cause septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia if it spreads to other parts of the body. Pregnant women should be extremely careful, because Listeria can cause a spontaneous abortion.

If treated promptly, Listeria can be killed. When feeling ill for more than a few days, see a doctor. Listeria can be killed with antimicrobials, but treatment is most effective when prompt.

Mycobacterium Leprae

Mycobacterium leprae is not a bacteria commonly found in the United States. It’s found primarily in tropical countries, where it is associated with the disease leprosy. Leprosy is a particularly dangerous disease, since the causative agent is difficult to eradicate.

Once inside the body, the bacteria enters white blood cells and duplicates inside. When the new bacteria are ready to infect new cells, they destroy the white blood cell and infect further cells, effectively disabling the immune system. There are some antibiotics available, although drug-resistant strains of the bacteria do exist.

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a gram-positive bacteria that is responsible for causing tuberculosis. Infection with tuberculosis can occur during treatments for other disorders, including chemotherapy or an antibiotic therapy.
Symptoms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis include bloody sputum, hacking, chronic coughing, fever, night sweats, chest pains, chills, fatigue, and the potential of infecting other organs. Extra-pulmonary areas include the fluid around the lungs, or pleura, the central nervous system (meningitis), the lymphatic system, the bones and joints, or the spine (Pott’s disease).

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is more likely to infect people who suffer from substance abuse, those who endure drug therapies for other conditions, or who suffer with AIDS.

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a kind of bacteria that is particularly resistant to common antibiotics. It causes a form of pneumonia that is spread through respiratory droplets from an infected host to a new host’s lungs. As the bacteria replicates inside the new host, symptoms like pharyngitis and pneumonia can occur.

Unlike other forms of pneumonia, where the host is congested and coughing up mucus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes a milder form of pneumonia that causes the host discomfort and trouble breathing. Should the infected not go to a doctor, they can become a chronic carrier of the disease.
Diagnosis can be difficult due to a lack of typical symptoms, and often a culture will have to be taken. Once identified, there are several antibiotics that have proven effective.

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa are bacteria that can live in many different environments including soap, eye drops, sinks, and medical equipment, and is recognized as a cause of opportunistic infections in hospitals. It is particularly threatening to patients with immune system deficiencies, burns, catheters, and respirators. Patients with cystic fibrosis are also prone to infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa attacks up to two-thirds of all critical care patients, and has a forty to sixty percent mortality rate, so measures to prevent initial exposure are essential. These include sterilization, isolation, hand-washing, and gloves, as well as surface cleaning.

Antimicrobial surfaces have proven effective in preventing exposure. In a study by the Environmental Protection Agency, 355 copper alloys, including many brasses, which undergo regular cleaning, killed approximately ninety-nine percent of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Treatment includes antibiotic therapy and bacteriophage therapy. However, not all antibiotics are effective, and a culture and sensitivity test must be done in order to determine the effectiveness of a given antibiotic.

Rickettsia Rickettsii

Rickettsia rickettsii is a form of bacteria, called a coccobacillus, which causes the group of symptoms generally called “Rocky Mountain spotted fever.” Ticks are natural hosts for the rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, serving as both a reservoir for the parasite, and a vector, or entry point, for the disease to infect warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans.

The rash from Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by Rickettsia rickettsii occurs, in the majority of cases, 2 to 5 days after the onset of the fever, appearing as small flat patches of inflammation just below the skin, known as macules, and is not an itchy rash. These macules appear on peripheral body parts, such as the wrists, ankles, feet, and forearms, but as the disease continues, the rash will darken in appearance, becoming reddish and eventually purple, as well as spreading to the entire body.

Upon infection, the symptoms of fever, nausea, emesis, or vomiting, severe headache, muscle pain, and lack of appetite will manifest. In some rare cases, parotitis can occur, which is the inflammation of the parotid salivary glands on either side of the face, located near the “hinge” of the jaw.

Salmonella Arizona

Arizona is a bacterium subspecies of Salmonella enterica. This bacterium usually infects reptiles. However, on rare occasions, the bacterium can infect humans, especially infants or immune-compromised individuals.

When humans are infected, they usually display one or more of the following symptoms: Gastroenteritis, peritonitis, or pleuritis. Osteomyelitis, a painful infection of the bone, meningitis, a debilitating infection of neural tissue, and bacteremia, a bacterial infection of the blood, can also be caused by the Arizona bacterium.

Salmonella Typhimurium

Salmonella typhimurium is a gram negative bacteria primarily is found in the intestinal tract. Since it requires a lower pH and a warm temperature to thrive, it will remain dormant in nature, and only can reproduce inside of a host.
Humans contract the disease usually by the fecal-oral route. The bacterial cells will seek out nonphagocytic cells and are able to manipulate themselves into the cells. The bacteria inside the cell can then safely live without being destroyed by other cells as well as the host cell.

When the bacteria enter the large intestine, they can cause gastroenteritis in humans. The bacterial cells will enter the epithelial cells of the intestine, damaging the cells. When the body’s defenses realize that the epithelial cells are being damaged, white blood cells will enter the intestine area, which causes problems for the digestive system, usually resulting in diarrhea. Although the disease causes discomfort, it is a self-limiting disease. The white blood cells are able to kill the bacteria and the intestinal system will expel them in human waste.

Shigella Boydii

Shigella boydii is a bacteria usually found in the human intestine. It is transmitted through fecal oral transmission and spreads in areas where proper hygiene procedures are not followed. This bacteria is particularly prevalent in Mexico and India and has been found on fruits and vegetables. Since the bacteria can be transmitted through waste products, produce growing in manure can carry the bacteria and infect others.

Shigella boydii is a facultative anaerobe, meaning that it can live in the presence of oxygen as well as in atmospheres devoid of oxygen. In the intestine is an anaerobic environment, but when the bacteria leaves the body with waste products, it can survive due to the presence of catalase, which allows the bacteria to use oxygen for its metabolic processes.

Shigella Sonnei

Shigella sonnei is a gram negative known for causing dysentery. Due to the optimal pH and temperature, the human body is the best place for the Shigella sonnei to live. The Shigella organism is usually spread through the fecal-oral route and is especially dangerous in countries without sanitary drinking water. Human waste can leak into the water supply and spread the disease to many people.
When in the intestinal tract, the Shigella bacteria causes gastrointestinal problems, also known as shigellosis. The bacteria can excrete a toxin that will cause inflammation in the intestines and kill the cells in the epithelium of the colon walls. The death of these cells causes even more inflammation and sometimes will cause bleeding into the colon.

The disease caused by Shigella sonnei is dysentery, which means fecal matter with pus and blood. Due to the damage that the toxin does to the digestive tract, patients often experience diarrhea with blood, an especially dangerous symptom.

Staphylococcus Aureus

Staphylococcus Aureus is known as the common cause of staph infections in humans. Staphylococcus Aureus was first discovered in 1880 in the pus from a surgical abscess. The bacteria’s grape-like appearance when examined under a microscope led to its name, from the Greek Staphyle (bunch of grapes) and kokkos (berry).

Streptococcus Agalactiae

Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram positive bacterium, and one of many common bacteria naturally occurring in the human gastrointestinal tract; however, it can spread to other sites throughout the body and cause infection. More specifically, Streptococcus agalactiae has been known to spread to the vagina in women, which is clinically significant because of the possible damage to newborns during childbirth.

Streptococcus Faecalis

Streptococcus faecalis is a type of gram positive bacteria belonging to the lactic acid bacteria group. Streptococcus faecalis has been reclassified as Enterococcus faecalis.

E. faecalis is found in diseased teeth needing or having had root canal treatment. E. faecalis can and does ferment glucose. E. faecilis is also a facultative anaerobic bacterium that manufactures Adenosine Tri-Phosphate from oxygen, or uses fermentation if no oxygen is present to sustain its needs. A fermentation process gets energy from an oxidation process that involve organic compounds immediately available, like carbohydrates or sugars in the stomach.

Streptococcus Gordonii

Streptococcus gordonii are a commonly occurring bacteria that causes different types of infection, most commonly problems in the mouth. Some of the infections people may get that involve Streptococcus gordonii include gingivitis, the disease of the gums that leads to heart disease, and tooth decay. The Streptococcus gordonii bacteria can colonize on the tooth enamel in the form of plaque and also serve as precursors of developing tooth decay.

Streptococcus Mutans

Streptococcus Mutans is a cariogenic bacteria that is leading cause of tooth decay and cavities. Streptococcus Mutans love to live in acid environments. One in particular that it converts into is lactid acid. This results in disintegration of the tooth coating, which then dissolves the calcium molecules – creating a hole.

Foods that contain additives or other toxic compounds contribute to the changes of the oral pH levels. All forms of simple sugars accelerate the build up of plaque. Cavities are usually golden brown in color and tend to cause toothaches or mild pain.

Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae, more commonly known simply as streptococcus, is a bacterium recognized to cause both pneumonia and meningitis in humans. Some less common infections also caused by this bacteria include, but are not limited to, septic arthritis, brain abscesses, and sinusitis.

Streptococcus Pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive bacteria that is the cause of Group A streptococcal infections. S. pyogenes are one of the most common pathogens in humans, and can cause many human diseases – ranging from minor skin irritations to severe systemic infections. Of the six-hundred-fifty-thousand severe infections reported each year it is estimated that twenty-five percent are fatal.

Treponema Pallidum

The Treponema pallidum bacteria infect victims with the venereal disease known as syphilis, as well as the diseases pinta, yaws, and bejel.

Bejel infects the skin of its victims, but is not spread by sexual contact, instead it is caused by oral contact or by the joint use of personal eating utensils. The infection begins in the mouth as a mucous patch and then moves on to the arms, legs, and trunk. The infection may create a swelling and inflammation of the person’s leg bones, as well as gummas – broad lesions – on the soft palate and nose.

Pinta is caused by the Treponema pallidum carateum bacteria. The skin problem here is the formation of a papule, which presents itself somewhere on the skin after contact with the bacteria, usually skin to skin contact. After several months, the papule becomes dry and flaky and the skin all over the entire body breaks out in “pintids” (flattened lesions). Some people will suffer from pigment changes.

Yaws, an infection induced by Treponema pallidum pertenue, attacks the joints, skin, and bones of its carriers.

Syphilis comes about through sexual contact with lesions that carry the infection or the bacteria. This can also pass from mother to child during pregnancy or birth. The first sign of is a chancre sore, which is a somewhat hardened sore place on the skin that causes little or no pain or itching, yet looks very sore. The next stage of this infection is a rash all over the bottoms of the feet and palms. Syphilis can reach a latent stage where there are no symptoms, then escalate into a tertiary stage, resulting in neurological problems, sore and inflamed gummas, and heart problems.

Vibrio Cholerae

Vibrio cholerae is a type gram-negative bacteria. While not all strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can cause the disease cholera.
Cholera is not common in the United States today and is mostly prevalent in Africa and Asia, where it is particularly deadly. The disease is a zoonosis, meaning that it remains in an animal source. The disease is usually acquired from drinking contaminated water either by the shellfish or by fecal matter from an individual with the disease.

When contracting cholera, the disease usually manifests itself in diarrhea. In some severe cases, the fluid loss may be extreme, with the patient losing almost one liter of fluid an hour. This loss can cause the patient to go into shock and die in a few hours.

Yersinia Pestis

Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative bacteria with three main forms relevant to human illnesses, all of which have great medical significance. Yersinia pestis has a very high virulence rating, or ability to cause disease in its host. One example of the bacteria’s main forms of transmission is through skin penetrating flea bites.

One of the most notorious instances of Yersinia pestis outbreak occurred in Europe in the mid 1300s, widely known as the Black Plague. Another well-known illness caused by the bacteria is pneumonic plague, and although it is rarer, is significantly more virulent than the bubonic plague. Symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, chest pain, and even bloody saliva.

The third main illness caused by Yersinia pestis is called septicemic plague, an infection of the blood. This form of the plague is the most uncommon, although possibly the most devastating. Symptoms include vomiting, fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, followed by rapid organ failure and death.

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